Category Archives: Academic

About Rights

A Right is a Sanction of Independent Action.

A Sanction is authoritative permission.

That’s why thier source determines thier nature!

Are they from God? Are they Intrinsic? Am I hard-wired with them? Are they “born” in the Battlefield? Or are they gifts from the state?

If they come from God as the Declaration of Independence asserts, they are non-negotiable (unalienable).

https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript

If they are gifts from government, as the UN claims in thierInternational Covenant on Economic, Cultural, & Social Rights Article 4, then all they have do to to violate them is to write a new “law.”

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx

Negative Rights have stood the test of time. Thou Shall Not Kill or Steal protects your life and property from others. So is “The government Shall make no law, violate, abridge, infringe, deny, disparage ect…

The change towards Positive Rights came subtlely because most people generally do not understand the difference between the right to HAVE something and the right to SEEK Something. Education, Health Care, and Marriage are things we have the right to seek in the pursuit of happiness, they are Goods and Services, NOT Rights. When goods and services of others become rights, then they are cumpulsory, and the providers have essentially become slaves because they have no right to refuse. Equivilant to saying “I have the right to have others work my cotton fields without compensation.” That is Slavery. Then the jounrney from a Defensive Shield of Rights to an Aggressive Sword of Rights is complete.

The Bill of Rights (Amendments 1 – 10)

Rights and Privileges

Rights are directly linked to life and property. The Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution agrees: “The Right of the People to be secure  in thier persons, papers, houses, and effects shall not be violated.” Another way to put is: “I have the right to walk on my property whenever I want. I do not have the right to walk on your property, that is a privilege that you extend to me that can be revoked at anytime.”

Rights and Powers

Rights belong to Individuals, Powers belong to Groups. The language of the Constitution supports this when it talks about the Powers of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches of government. The Tenth Amendment talks about, “Those Powers not delegated to the United States by this Constitution…” A group of people may be able to physically overpower an individual and violate the rights of a single person, that does not make it right. This does not prevent individuals from also possesing power; if your Kung-Fu is good enough or you carry a weapon skillfully, you may be able to prevail against seemingly insurmountable odds and nuetralize the situation by exercising your right to self defense.

In reality, gay rights, black rights, women’s rights are actually excercises in power. Rights belong to and are practiced and enjoyed by individuals. Any special favors given to members of certain groups that exclude others are actually privileges extended by government at taxpayer expense, thus redistributing other people’s money by force to give advantage to a select few. The danger of the concept of groups of people having special rights or enjoying favor with any government is the danger to other groups who fall out of favor. What does it mean for them?

James Madison, by John Vanderlyn

 

In 1785, James Madison wrote an essay challenging a propsed law in his native Virginia called “Religious Assessments” that addressed the very issue of what it means to prefer a religion and the impact to those members of other religions who fall out of state favor:

“The free men of America did not wait till usurped power had strengthened itself by exercise, and entangled the question in precedents. They saw all the consequences in the principle, and they avoided the consequences by denying the principle.”

 

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-08-02-0163

What about States Rights?

When used in the context of the Tenth Amendment against to machinations of the federal government or in the supremacy of cities and counties therin, the term States Rights is generally accepted by most because those speaking of it understand the concept. Yet, if we agree that Rights are for Indivisuals and Power is for Groups, then the more correct term is State Soveriegnty. According to the Constitution, States can assert thier power in both directions, within and without.

Taking a license

When Patrick Henry was walking the Streets of Culpeper Virginia, he came across an minister who was whipped for three days until he eventually died. What crime did he commit? He did not take a license! This incident is what sparked Patrick Henry to make his very famous “Give me Liberty of Give Me Death” speech which became a rallying cry for the American Revolution.

A license is an arbitray means for any government or private organization to transform a right into a privilege while making money in the process, thus taking way your rights and selling them back to you; all in the name of safety of course.

While most reasonable people agree that there should be basic minimum standards to protect the public from fraudsters and unskilled practitioners from physically endangering the public, so they usually tolerate licenses and see them as a good thing. The general public is unaware that States may issue licences according to thier own laws and usually specify that they apply only to those people and companies engaged in commercial enterprise and utilizing public resources for private gain. That is why the definition of Transportation according to law deals with the shipment of people and products for a profit. If taxis, buses, and limozines are transporting people on public roads, then the speed limit and licenses apply to them. If there are trucks with massive loads, perishable food, or dangerous chemicals on the highway, then they are engaged in Transportation and the states may regulate them in the interest of public safety.

Unbeknownst to most people in the United States is that the terms Operator, Driver, and Vehicle, apply to Transportation for commercial enterprise and not towards private individuals who are Traveling in thier personal Auto who are not engaged in making money on the highway. The Supreme Court agrees that a person does not need a license to travel on the public roads.

U.S. Supreme Court Says No License Necessary To Drive Automobile On Public Roads

There are ways to challenge a Traffic Ticket or Citation in court if you are traveling in your personal auto on public roads for infractions that apply only to Transportation or for engaging in these things for nonprofit; however, we must all pick and choose our battles.

For those who choose to better understand engage the system in Traffic Courts:

Flexing Your Rights

When encountering local Police, county Deputy Sheriffs, or State Troopers on the highway, it is advisable not to air out your grievances with them on the streets where they are king. That being said, we should always flex our rights, particularly when it comes to private information and personal, vehicle, or home searches. It is important that you tell them that, “I do not conscent to searches,” They may violate your rights anyway; however, if you are arrested, issued a citation,  or have property confescated, you can challenge them in court if you have asserted your rights. Always act respectful and courteous to the police when asserting your rights, this is ultimately profitable for both sides, even if it does not go well for you at the scene.

 

The New American Magazine Interviews Amendment Avenger about the 2016 Presidential Election

AA in studio

Just prior to one of the biggest political upset in American history, I had an opportunity to talk with Alex Newman from the New American Magazine. The purpose of the interview was to determine if the black vote is as homogeneous as people are led to believe.  In the article, published on November 5, just 3 days prior to election day, I break down why I did not support the Clinton campaign and even articulated my concerns for a Trump presidency as it relates to Constitutional issues.

http://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/politics/item/24557-prominent-black-americans-including-progressives-loathe-clinton

 

US Constitution: Understanding the Main Body

The Maverick Podcast #61: The Constitution Special w/ The Amendment Avenger

If you’re looking for expert analysis on what really happened before the document was ratified and what each article really means, you’ve come to the right place.

o-constitution-facebook

Host Benjamin Knight and frequent guest The Amendment Avenger present: The Constitution Special – a lesson on the main body of the Constitution and American history leading up to that point.

Listen for the following:

-The Three-Fifths Compromise myth.

-The truth about gun rights.

-A backstory on our Founding Fathers.

-What the executive branch can/cannot do, a full breakdown.

-The purpose of the separation of powers.

-The Philadelphia Convention.

-Why Anti-Federalists were really federalists.

-Misinformation being perpetuated by high schools and universities across the country debunked.

And more!

the-maverick2


Study Guide Presentation to follow along with podcast:

Amendment Avenger Constitution PDF

Amendment Avenger Constitution PPTX


THE LESSON

Link to Uninterrupted Podcast:

The Maverick Podcast #61: The Constitution Special w/ The Amendment Avenger

OR

A Breakdown of the Lesson:

Prelude to the Constitution

Federalists and Anti-Federalists

Structural Overview

PREAMBLE

Legislative Powers

Forbidden Powers

Executive Powers

Judicial Powers

The Republic and Beyond


Source Document: The Constitution of the United States

Constitution of the United States

National Archives: Charters of Freedom


Works of Advocacy and Opposition:

Federalist Papers

Anti-Federalist Papers


CONGRATULATIONS!

After Reading the Main Body of the Source Document, Using the Study Guide, and reviewing Federalist & Anti-Federalist Papers

YOU ARE NOW KNOW MORE ABOUT THE CONSTITUTION THAN MOST AMERICANS!

Be sure to investigate the State Ratification Conventions

STAND BY FOR: UNDERSTANDING THE BILL OF RIGHTS

 

 

The Rise and Resistance to Globalism in the US

UN General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly at New York City

For as long as there has been an America, there have been those who seek to exploit her prosperity and might: Pirates, who operate in international waters outside the rule of law, elitists of the high seas, plundering the wealth of nations and leaving the smoldering husks of conquest in their wake. Time and time again, these international banks, corporations, and the politicians they finance, have effectively used strategic alliances to engage in economic warfare against their competition while incrementally using escalating crises they generate to establish global political hegemony.

For decades, the movements of these command-and-controllers have been closely monitored and resisted only by academics, deep insiders, and the most highly knowledgeable of watchdog groups. All of that is changing. Now, with the advent of the internet and the subsequent amalgamation of incalculable data, the average computer savvy individual with access to electronic media can conduct their own investigations with greater ease. This has notably led to a shift in the knowledge base of the grassroots and an exponential surge of anti-globalist groups around the world, particularly in the United States.

While the young America was in its inception as British colonies in revolt, another kind of revolution was taking place in Europe that would change the dynamics of empires forever. In 1773, Mayer Amschel Rothschild organized a meeting of the money powers of manufacturing and banking to discuss his plan. By combining their resources they would gain complete control of the economic and political sphere. Politicians would be servile and obedient to them. They would control all outlets of public information and provide all manner of vice to systematically corrupt the youth of all nations. Finally, they would fund all factions in war to draw all nations into their debt and use crises to push for new world order of a one-world government that is completely owned and operated by them. This plan would involve implementation by stealth until such a moment where no cunning or force could undermine it (Mullins, 1991).

In a similar fashion to the Rothschild meeting of the late eighteenth century, a secret gathering of elitists took place in a hotel room at a luxury resort in Jekyll Island, Georgia in 1910. With representatives of the Rockefellers’, Rothschild’s, the Vanderbilt banking family, Senator Nelson Aldrich, and others, constituted one quarter of the wealth of the entire planet. At this meeting the Federal Reserve System was devised. The voting and signing into law of the Federal Reserve Act by Woodrow Wilson on December 23, 1913 was done under the radar when most of Congress was home for Christmas (Griffin, 1994).

According to author and professor Murray N. Rothbard of the Ludwig von Mises Institute, “The Federal Reserve System virtually controls the nation’s monetary system, and it is accountable to no one. It has no budget, is subject to no audit, and no Congressional Committee knows of, or can truly supervise its operations.”(Rothbard 1996 ).  All of their meetings are held in secret and half the owners are foreign nationals (Mullins 1991). They print money, issue credit “out of thin air,” and finance both sides of every war (Griffin 1994). Lew Rockwell, founder of the Mises Institute adds, “The century of central banking is also the century of total warfare.” Shortly after the formation of the Federal Reserve, World War I was in full swing.

During this, “War to end all wars,” a National Relief Fund was established and Republican Herbert Hoover was dispatched by Democrat Woodrow Wilson to live in Belgium and work for Emile Francqui, the twelfth richest man in Europe and an owner of the Federal Reserve.  Hoover was sent under the guise of a National Relief Fund program to feed the war orphans in Belgium. After trading 200,000 slaves from the Kaiping copper mines in China to the Congo for Franqui, Hoover was deemed the perfect humanitarian for just such an occasion. Instead of helping orphans however, he used US taxpayer funds to provide relief to German army by shipping food and supplies because they were losing interest in war and could no longer afford it (Mullins 1991). Levying war against the several States and providing aid and comfort to the enemy is clearly an act of treason according to Article III Sec. 3 of the US Constitution. By feeding the German army in WW I, Hoover committed treason.

After the war, a League of Nations was proposed by Woodrow Wilson; however, the US Senate blocked America’s entry. In the interim between the world wars, an American branch of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) was incorporated in 1921 and the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) was born. Their mission was to incrementally change the political atmosphere in favor of the internationalists (Perloff, 1988). Out of the CFR’s “Informal Agenda Group” The United Nations would ultimately be formed after World War II by the Rockefellers at the Presidio Naval Shipyard in 1945 (Jones, 2006), not by nations tired of war (Perloff 2009).

Also, between the wars was the German consortium IG Farben. Germany made a determination that one of the reasons they lost the war was because they ran out of gas. Since Germany was rich in coal, IG Farben developed a process called hydrogenation that converted up to fifty percent of the weight of coal into fuel. They used this technology as leverage to convince the Rockefeller’s to let them merge with Standard Oil. Ultimately merging with over 2000 companies through the United States and ninety three countries, the agreement was to allow all joint oil exploration outside of Germany be led by the US, and all joint ventures for petrochemical pharmaceuticals be led by Germany and Professor Bayer from Bayer Pharmaceuticals, a founding member of IG Farben (Griffin 1975).

The German war machine of the next World War would be fueled almost entirely from oil that was converted from coal. The oil was good for German panzers manufactured by Ford and for warships; however, it was too crude for the Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force, and the planes had to be supplemented with an additive from Standard Oil in the US. While the German word Farben is benign, meaning dye-stuffs, a tribute to the company’s origin, the use of IG stands for Interessengemeinschaft, meaning “Community of Interest,” or in plain English, a cartel (Griffin, 1975).

While the CFR and IG Farben were moving forward with their international agenda between the world wars, other factions of elitists in the US, more nationalist in nature, believed that brute force was a superior method for implementation of their plans and accelerated their plans. Brigadier General Smedley Darlington Butler testified in Congress to the McCormack/ Dickstein Committee on Un-American Activities from 1934-1935 about a fascist plot by the American Nazi Party to assassinate President Franklin D. Roosevelt and an attempt to takeover of the federal government. He implicated members of Citibank, the DuPont’s, and Remington Firearms (Parfrey, 2003).

By blowing the whistle, two time Medal of Honor recipient Smedley Butler, affectionately known as “Old Gimlet Eye” to his marines, had single-handedly stopped the Nazi takeover of America. Time Magazine, controlled by banker JP Morgan, lambasted Butler in an article titled “A plot without plotters” (Parfrey, 2003).  Although the committee did agree with Butler, they did not release their findings to the public at the time (McCormack). In his timeless classic War is a Racket, Butler lays out the horrors of war while explaining who makes the profits and who pays the bills. The thirty three year veteran acknowledged being a “high class muscle man for big business,” adding, “profits are measured in dollars and losses are measured in lives” (Butler 1935).

Another example of war as a racket for big business transpired shortly after the US involvement in the Korea under UN direction.  In 1954, the Central American multinational United Fruit Company had a big problem.  Jacobo Arbenz came to power in Guatemala. He campaigned on a land reform bill to combat a seventy percent ownership of land by only three percent of the people. In order to prevent disruption of their monopoly, they colluded with the CIA to launch a public relations campaign against Arbenz. Despite Guatemala having no official diplomatic relations with the USSR and no Russian Embassy, accusations of Guatemala as Soviet satellite were enough to justify US pilots bombing Guatemala City and overthrowing Arbenz (Perkins, 2004).

Meanwhile in that same year, across the Atlantic, another internationalist event that would shape the economic and political direction of America was taking place. Much like the 1773 meeting between the Rothschild and European captains of industry, and the Jekyll Island meeting in 1910, the Bilderberg Group met in secret to combine over 120 of the world’s most influential multinational corporations, heads of state, bankers, consulting firms, and media moguls, to come to a consensus and make public policy, while behind closed doors. The elitist confab had been meeting under a total media blackout since 1954 (Jones 2006). This already violates the laws of several nations including the United States such as the Logan Act. This law is found in Title 18 in US Code of Federal Regulations, Sec 593. Because of the corruption that it breeds, all public officials who attend are guilty of felony crimes and can be punished with three years of incarceration.

As a result of the more overt and aggressive international policies, the late 1950’s through the 1960’s, experienced a more galvanized public resistance to internationalist corporate shenanigans and their interlocking globalist bureaucracies. In 1962, the American Legion passed a resolution condemning the CFR. The daughter of the American Revolution petitioned Congress to investigate them. The Goldwater movement, which was to restore the GOP to its roots, and the newly formed John Birch Society rose in strong opposition to the globalists and CFR (Perloff, 1988).

Even with pushback from these highly motivated groups and others, most people were still in the dark. This allowed corporate agents like John Perkins to move across the world and shakedown nations for trillions of dollars in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Recruited by the National Security Agency to be the Chief Economist for the Boston based Charles T. Main Inc., corporate skullduggery was the name of the game. To justify massive World Bank loans to developing countries, he produced an exaggerated false economic prospectus for infrastructure projects and skillfully sold it to his critics. After the loans were approved, contractors from outside the host nation would pour in to start massive water and power construction (Perkins, 2004).

The indigenous people did not benefit as a whole because no new jobs were created for them and they could not afford the services rendered if the projects were finished. By the time the bill came due for the interest on the loans, the leaders had been replaced. The pound of flesh required by these corporations, like Main, Bechtel, and Halliburton, would be to tax the people into submission and strip the land of coveted natural resources. Additionally, these developing nations would have to support US foreign policies and military presence. If a leader of a nation did not get with the corporate program, the “jackals” were right behind him to mop up. Jaime Roldos of Ecuador and Omar Torrijos of Panama were examples. If the leaders were too heavily guarded, or the CIA installed replacements developed hubris of their own then justification for military intervention of that nation would be waiting (Perkins, 2004).

Perkins, who coined the word “Corporatocracy” (Irvine, 2014), lays out how international corporations dominate the majority of the world’s nations in his New York Times bestselling autobiographical novel, Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. A good Illustration of this concept from the time period was the film, Network. “There is no America. There is no democracy. There is only IBM and ITT and AT&T” the antagonist shares his vision with newscaster Mr. Beale. “One vast and ecumenical holding,” he describes, “in which all men will share a common stock” (Lumet, 1976).

The omnipresence of industry and arms merging with government was a key point in President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s 1961 farewell address. “In the counsels of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought the by the military industrial complex.” Eisenhower continued, “The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and persists.”

In a speech to the American Newspaper Publishers Association three months later, President John F. Kennedy also warned of a “vast and monolithic conspiracy” and added “The word secrecy is repugnant in a free and open society.” Kennedy himself resisted the Federal Reserve by issuing Executive Order 11110, which introduced billions of dollars of silver and silver certificates into circulation, as competing currency against Federal Reserve Notes. He resisted the CIA when he fired its director, Allen Dulles, in the wake of the “Bay of Pigs” disaster. He resisted the CFR when he fired his Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Lyman L. Limnitzer, for the proposing terrorists against Americans as a pretext for war with Cuba in the declassified Northwoods Document. Kennedy opposed the military industrial complex by ordering all troops out of Vietnam by 1965 in National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263.

Kennedy was publicly executed and his direction was subsequently reversed. Since then, the CFR has been that driving force of influence and misplaced power for decades in both the Democrat and Republican parties. Every Secretary of Defense, over forty United States UN ambassadors, many dominant news media figures, and every member of every presidential cabinet from that day in 1963 have been CFR (Perloff, 1988), even unto this day (Jones, 2009).

“They [globalists] weren’t able to do this [take over] because they had better products,” explains radio host Alex Jones, in his YouTube video, Full Spectrum Evil: The Secrets of Global Domination, “They were able to do it because they created, through fractional reserve banking here in the US, and similar systems worldwide, unlimited free credit for themselves which they then loan out to you at interest.” Jones includes, “They have the get out of jail free card” (Jones 2011).

This was demonstrated in by Inside Job, which is a documentary film about the sub-prime mortgage crisis and subsequent financial meltdown in 2008, costing investors and taxpayers trillions of dollars.  Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the French socialist and Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund in 2007, was asked about the Simon Johnson’s article in The Atlantic magazine. Johnson stated, “The economic and political power of the financial services industry has become so great that the policy-making has become prisoner to the financial oligarchy.” Strauss-Kahn admitted, “That is not wrong,” adding, “I think he puts too much emphasis on this” (Ferguson 2010).

The abuse of economics as a political weapon for corporate control continues. In Foreign Affairs magazine. Shinzo Abe, Japanese Prime Minister from 2006-2007, told Foreign Affairs magazine, the chief publication of CFR’s scholarly white papers, that he was going to use “Abenomics,” his own brand of economics that dumped 100 trillion yen of stimulus onto the Japanese market. “Abenomics” merges “Reaganomics” and “Clintonomics,” as a decisive tool for steering Japan into the international Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) treaty (Rose, 2013).

These endorsements by the Council on Foreign Relations of economic and political activities at home and abroad such as the TTP and the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) have culminated in blowback across the land. At a Conference in Seattle, prolific filmmaker and historian, G. Edward Griffin, described his organization, Freedom-Force International, as the Antithesis to the CFR because it is built on the model of individualism and not collectivism (Griffin, 2010).

TTP and TTIP affect the sovereignty of all nations involved. In America, it is being negotiated in secret. There is no congressional or legislative oversight worldwide for its 30,000 pages. Before being quietly released recently, five out of twenty nine chapters that have been leaked, not only can corporations ignore the laws of all nations altogether if the laws interfere with profits, they can sue governments for losses to their expected future gains through “Investor State Tribunals.” Massive sweeping legislation for, guns, climate, cybersecurity, income, pharmaceutical, vitamins & minerals, surveillance, and copyrights are known to be included. In June, after being denied access by the Obama Administration, Congress abdicated its constitutional oversight powers to give the president unlimited “Fast Track” authority to negotiate the terms with 500 corporate lobbyists in secret, even secret from Congress (McAdoo 2014).

This blatant disregard for transparency and congressional oversight has lit a fire into the online Anti-globalist community worldwide, especially in the United States. No longer are these individuals and groups limited to books, magazines, talk radio, and documentaries. The Anti-globalists have taken up arms on the Internet. Former twelve time Congressman and three time presidential candidate Ron Paul’s Campaign for Liberty, the Ron Paul Channel, his homeschooling curriculum, and Institute for Peace and Prosperity have resisted globalism with a softer, more palatable tone that is easily digestible to the public.

The fight against globalism in governments, banks, and corporations is not a phenomenon that is mutually exclusive to isolated pockets of a geographical area within the states; it is widespread throughout all regions of America. The John Birch Society operates from Wisconsin, Abbey Martin’s Media Roots Podcast is a spin off from her forceful Breaking the Set show on RT News is in Washington DC. Luke Rudkowski’s We Are Change (WRC) is home-ported in New York and has activists in every state. Mark Dice frequently wreaks havoc with his petitions in San Diego. Storm Clouds Gathering is a popular YouTube channel. The Jacksonville based Radio Show Earth: with Dr. Drake & Dr. Truth, is overtly Anti-New World Order in tone. Caravan to Midnight with John B. Wells and Truthstream Media with Aaron & Melissa Dykes are organizations in Texas, Crossing the Void Radio with Scott Haire is based in Connecticut, Dan Bidondi of the Rhode Island stationed Truth Radio Show single-handedly shut down three FBI conferences about the 2013 Boston bombings with questions about “false flag” operations.

Another prominent figure in the world of resistance is Lew Rockwell, the author of several books including the Economics of Freedom and The Left, The Right, and the State. He is a staunch anti-war, anti-state, “anarcho-capitalist,” and founder of the Ludwig von Mises Institute of Austrian Economic Studies in Auburn, Alabama. The Mises Institute is a central hub for liberty oriented scholars from around the world. Mises.org alone gets over half a million visitors per month. More media savvy activists include Constitutional lawyer Krissanne Hall from the Tallahassee based Krissanne Hall Show, who frequently travels the country on speaking tours. Decorated Marine and author of Freedom Adam Kokesh started out as the host of  RT’s Adam vs the Man. Author, actor, wrestler, US Navy Seal, and former Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura hosts the hard core anti-establishment Off The Grid. Gerald Celente’s Trends Research Institute is harshly critical of globalist scandals. Joel Skoussen’s World Affairs Brief and Matt Drudge’s Drudge Report are also famous within the Anti-globalist community. These activists also share a common trait; they are primarily non-party affiliated.

Among these individuals and organizations, Alex Jones of Infowars.com is considered by many in Anti-globalist circles to be at the “tip of the spear” in the fight against what global leaders themselves call the “New World Order. Alex Jones’s Infowars.com and PrisonPlanet.tv have risen from a public access radio show in the late 1990’s in Austin, Texas to 9.9 million viewers per month according to Similarweb.com.

These groups have plenty to say about a great deal of issues across the geopolitical spectrum. The UN Global Biodiversity Assessment Agenda 21 is a good example because it has caused alarm in the alternative independent media community. Agenda 21 usurps federal and state authorities and goes directly into local communities. Adrian Whylie, a former Libertarian candidate for governor of Florida, warns of the “Florida Forever” program to confiscate private property under the guise of environmentalism and turning over wetlands to Nestle, a Swiss company, so they can bottle the water and sell it back to us (Irvine 2014). From lauding the virtues of bringing back gladiatorial events in a Hunger Games type of scenario, to cramming people into compact cities, fierce opposition to Agenda 21 is looming, After UN Secretary General Kofi Anon recommended humans eat bugs to save the planet, radio host Alex Jones talked about an anti-human agenda that wants people to live in a 200 square foot apartment and pay $100 for a steak (Jones 2006).

The Globalists can push back too, and play dirty. When the World Trade Organization (WTO) had a meeting in Seattle in 1999, thousands of people who criticized the organization as being a thinly veiled asset collection tool for elitists on the global plantation, showed up to protest. “What do you do when you have an angry crowd with a legitimate gripe? You call in your boys” according to documentary film Police State II: The Takeover. In the film, Anarchists known as the “Black Block,” under Delta Force protection, and a rent free a base of operations across from the Seattle Police station, injected themselves into the crowd of legitimate protesters. After hours of destructive behavior against the will of the majority, they created the pretext for the police to crack down on the entire crowd, beating and arresting them indiscriminately. The First Amendment was suspended, martial law was in effect, and sixty percent of the city was shut down while WTO meeting continued unabated. Anyone so much as wearing an Anti-WTO pin in downtown Seattle was arrested at the checkpoint (Jones 2001).

The advent of this internet activism has led to a mass awakening and also resulted in the establishment globalists counter-responding in other, more positive ways after decades of press and media denial and blackout, the Bilderberg Group now has an official website. Sometimes, even Congress responds, Rep Mike Rogers has even introduced HR 1205, the “American Sovereignty Restoration Act” to permanently end US membership in the United Nations (American 2015).

“Monopoly needs government,” G. Edward Griffin best explains while unmasking the paradox of the rich socialist: “The biggest industries today, the multinationals, are not interested so much in efficiency in production or competition in price or product level. They are competing at the government level,” adding, “so they can use the power structure of government to eliminate or hinder their competition” (Griffin 1975).

The progress that capitalism and corporate profits bring can certainly empower humanity or it can be an incredible engine for global tyranny. What will we choose for the future of international business?  Competitive goods and services or coercion? The consequences of inaction to the future of humanity can be severe. The battle rages on. What else can be done? Be Vigilant, conduct your own research, vote with your dollars, and be prepared.

Frederick Douglass stated, “A man’s liberties rest in three boxes, the ballot box, the jury box, and the cartridge box.”


Works Cited

American Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2015, H.R.1205, 114th Cong. (2015). Retrieved from

congress.gov database https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/1205/cosponsors

Butler, S. (1935, 2003). War is a Racket. Port Townsend, WA: Feral House.

Ferguson, C. (Director). (2010). Inside Job [Motion picture on DVD]. US: Sony Pictures.

Girls Count Act of 2015,  Public Law No: 114-24, 114th Cong. Retrieved from congress.gov

https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/802/text?q={%22search%22%3A[%22Girls+Count+Act%22]}&resultIndex=1&overview=closed

Griffin, G. (1975, August 16). The Politics of Cancer Therapy. Speech, Fullerton CA.

Griffin, G (1975, October 4). The Myth and Meaning of Monopoly Capitalism. Speech,

Hollywood, CA.

Griffin, G. (1994). The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Second look at the Federal Reserve.

Westlake Village, CA: American Media.

Griffin, G. (2010, January 11). Crash Course on Money. Lecture, Seattle.

Irvine, S. (Producer). (2014, August 23). John Perkins: Confessions of an Economic Hitman

[Radiobroadcast]. In The Radio Show Earth. Jacksonville: Holsclaw. From

http://www.amendmentavenger.com/perkins/

Irvine, S. (Producer). (2015, March 15). G. Edward Griffin: Individualism v Collectivism [Radio

broadcast]. In The Radio Show Earth. Jacksonville: Holsclaw. From

https://earthradionetwork.com/march-15-2015-g-edward-griffin/

Jones, A. (Director). (2011). Full Spectrum Evil: Secrets of Global Domination [Motion picture].US: YouTube.

Jones, A. (Director). (2001). Police State II [Motion picture on DVD]. US: Infowars.

Jones, A. (Director). (2006). Endgame [Motion picture on DVD]. US: Infowars.

Jones, A. (Director). (2009). The Obama Deception [Motion picture on DVD]. US: Infowars.

Lumet, S. (Director). (1976). Network [Motion picture on DVD]. Canada: MGM/UA Warner.

McAdoo, L. (Producer). (2014). TPP: Fast Track to Facism [Motion picture]. US: Youtube.

McCormack / Dickstein Committee for Un American Activities to investigate Nazi Propaganda,

73rd- – 74th Cong, Retrieved from http://www.claytoncramer.com/primary/other/HUAC1.pdf

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Rothbard, M. (1996). Money, Banking, and the Federal Reserve [Motion picture on DVD]. US: Mises Institute.

Madison’s Challenge: “Systemic Vices” and the New Constitution

James Madison, by John Vanderlyn

James Madison, by John Vanderlyn (1816)

During the “Critical Period” following the birth of these United States after Revolutionary War, the Articles of Confederation were failing on multiple levels. America was falling apart and something had to be done quickly.

James Madison recognized the problem, did his homework, had a vision, and made a bold plan.

The principal historic events and key issues that led to the formation the American system of government are as fascinating and as spectacular as the Constitution itself.  With the foundation for a just government in America established by the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation attempted to unite the States to protect their mutual interests in commerce and defense. The weaknesses in the new system consequences of subsequent events highlighted the need for strengthening and amending the Articles.  Widely known as the “Architect of the Constitution”, the very capable James Madison was an instrumental force for handling this monumental task. As a scholarly master of public affairs, he organized a convention of delegates together at Philadelphia. He came prepared. As seemingly polished as the much celebrated final document is in outward appearance, which can be attributed in part to Madison’s well thought-out and articulated points, it was also the product of some truly remarkable fireworks in heated debates at the convention that directly reflected the tumultuous events of the “Critical Period”, and ultimately a testament to Madison’s leadership alongside the coordinated responses of an outstanding galaxy of brilliant men who conceived this new republic in the age of monarchies.

Drafted primarily by John Dickinson in 1776, and formally ratified in 1781 by all the States, The Articles of Confederation were principally a “league of friendship” between thirteen sovereign and independent states. The Articles featured a unicameral legislature, no executive or judicial branch, and a loose confederation of independent States, (More Perfect Union: Creation).  Each state was authorized two to seven representatives but only had only one vote The Congress could not tax the people directly or regulate trade. The Congress had to make formal requests to the states to raise troops or fund the treasury. Furthermore, Congress could appropriate and borrow money and handle foreign relations, but those powers were limited

As a consequence, James Madison saw the Articles as woefully inadequate because the United States could not tax directly, was impotent in setting or regulating commercial policy or settle disputes between the states. Additionally, there was no effective way to support a war effort. On the brink of economic disaster due to states printing and inflating their money supply, businesses were in a state of depression and farmers were losing their lands. The farmers in Massachusetts were in revolt and the state government had to put it down. Known as Shays’s Rebellion, the 1787 revolt exacerbated fears that anarchy was around the corner.  The delegate from Virginia, James Madison, had a rescue plan. (More Perfect Union: Creation).

This plan would not only amend the Articles of Confederation, it would amend them entirely out of existence (More Perfect Union: America). Later, in Madison’s tenth essay, he would explain his reasons. Article III contained a “general welfare” clause (Articles). Providing for the common defense and supporting the general welfare as enumerated in the Articles of Confederation, as justification for the departure and the establishment of a new constitution (Rossiter 259-260) and eventually the phrases were lifted directly from the Articles of Confederation and transplanted to the Constitution (Constitution).

The first step was already in progress and had taken place in 1785 as a meeting at George Washington’s Mount Vernon estate between delegates of Maryland and Virginia to foster alliances and commercial relations in spite of the Articles (McClanahan 143). The next year, when all the states were invited to a conference in Annapolis, Maryland, Madison and Hamilton made plans for a Philadelphia Convention. (144). Madison embarked on a scholarly research project that would run through 1787. Knowing of Madison’s prior accomplishments and service in Congress from 1780-1783, Georgia’s William Pierce added, “The affairs of the States, he perhaps, has the most correct knowledge of, of any man in the Union” (Gutzman 49).

James Madison’s deep research into the history of successful and failed federations added a whole new dimension to the debates which would manifest through some of his most profound writings and speeches. Together with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, Madison contributed to a series of letters totaling eighty five, published in New York newspapers under the pseudonym Publius, known as the Federalist (Morris 13-15). These Federalist Papers shared a national vision and were lauded by Thomas Jefferson as an outstanding work of advocacy as, “the best commentary on the principles of government which was ever written” (19).

Continuing on the subject of Hamilton’s Letter known as Federalist # 15, titled “Insufficiency of the Present Confederacy to Preserve the Union” (Rossiter 100), Madison expounds on the same subject by citing Demosthenes account of the failures in ancient Greece of the Amphictyonic Council (118) as the center of power in the federation shifted from Athens for seventy-three years, to the Lacedaemonians for twenty-nine years, and ultimately to the Thebans after Battle of Leuctra (119). After war with Xerxes, the inefficiency of the union surfaced with the jealousy and ambition as the members grew more powerful while the less powerful members became more dependent and degraded (119). Athens and Sparta were inflated from victories and became rivals and bitter enemies and inflicted upon each other greater damage than they suffered under the Persians. Peloponnesian War resulted in ruin and slavery to the Athenians who had launched the war (120).

Madison laid out systematically what went wrong in Greece, noting that, historically, when governments are weak at home and have many dissensions, they are quick to foment external crises. Such was the case as strife between the Amphictyonic Council, aligned with the Thebans, brought charges against the Phocians who were aided by Athens and Sparta. When the Amphictyons invited Phillip of Macedonia to come to their aid, he quickly capitalized on the situation, which he secretly influenced from the beginning, to dominate and subjugate all parties involved. Indeed, inciting domestic insurrection was listed in the grievances against England, in the Declaration of Independence, as an effective tool for despotism (Declaration). Disharmony from the very onset, exacerbated by a divide-and-conquer strategy from a foreign infiltrator, in Madison’s view, prevented them from withstanding Macedonia and the imposition of the Romans and their vicissitudes (Rossiter 120).

Having much praise for the Achean League of Grecian republics for retaining their municipalities and equality, their ability to send ministers and ambassadors abroad, make treaties, alliances and war through their senate, and the establishment of praetors to command the armies and enforce the uniform laws, Madison lamented the inclusion of Lacedaemon to the league. Unwilling to bring their existing laws into conformity with the union they were joining allowed for the Macedonian arts of disruption to enter and destroy their entire Union (121).

Upon Arrival in Philadelphia, Madison outlined twelve “Vices of the Political System of the United States” (Gutzman 50-52). The vices were classified into two groups, addressing deficiencies of the state governments and the federal system itself. In his first four vices, Madison elaborated on the state issues, charging that they constantly failed to comply with Congress’s requisitions , frequently encroached upon the federal authority, performed “Violations of the Laws of nations and of treaties”, and committed infractions on each other’s rights.  In vice number five, the absence of interstate cooperation was highlighted and a lack of federal guarantee against anti-republican revolution in the states was expounded upon in his sixth (Gutzman 50-52).

The seventh, which was structural in nature, stated, a “want of sanction to the laws and coercion in the Government of the Confederation”. Madison argued that the Articles were not really a constitution without coercion when dealing with the issue of state non-compliance. Furthermore, his strong advocacy for popular ratification was reflected by the “want of ratification by the people of the Articles of Confederation” as listed in his eight vice. The ninth and tenth dealt with the “mutability” of an overwhelming influx in the number of state laws, making it difficult to impossible for citizens of other states and even residents to keep up, adversely impacting the economies of the individual states (53).

The eleventh vice was an entire essay dedicated to the “injustice of the Laws of the States”.  Madison laid out his theory concerning why bad men are elected to office and surmises the pool of candidates in smaller spheres may be found wanting.  Three motives for political aspiration in three categories, ambition, personal interest, and the public good, are presented.   As an argument against mob rule in a republic, he stated that the people acting unjustly is more damaging to a republic than legislative misconduct (53). Continuing Hamilton’s argument for a Union as a safeguard against domestic faction and insurrection as outlined in Federalist # 9, Madison writes about the differences between democracies and republics in Federalist # 10, claiming that a republican “extension of the sphere” is the best cure for the ailments of the confederacy and protects minorities from the greed and passion of the majority because factions are unavoidable and means should be taken to minimize their effects (Rossiter 77-79).

In his final “Vices” expressed the desirability of an electoral process that would promote the most capable people to obtain office as they were honorably impelled to public service for the public good.

In a letter to George Washington, an outspoken critic of the Articles of Confederation, James Madison worked very hard to lay out the Virginia Plan and persuade Washington to come to the Philadelphia Convention (Ketchum 31). Madison also coached Edmund Randolph prior to the event and prompted to submit the Virginia Plan which was drafted mostly with his vision, before others could submit their plans on the floor.  Originally sold as to be “corrected and enlarged”, this bold plan shocked Randolph, as it was set not only to be a departure from the Articles, but to scrap them entirely (Morris 219).  The Virginia Plan featured a national Executive to enforce the laws with veto powers to be chosen by congress and serve seven years, a judicial branch with a system of federal courts, and popular vote for representatives (224).

The Virginia Plan drew fierce opposition from Roger Sherman of Connecticut and Elbridge Gerry took an anti-democratic position warned that republicans should remember “the dangers of a leveling spirit” bringing the issue of classes into the debate (224) while George Mason warned of working to avoid too much democracy would go too far in the other direction (224). James Wilson wanted to “raise the federal pyramid as high as possible” which would require a widest possible base. John Dickenson argued that the states would be devoured by the national government. Fierce debate over the selection process for senators ensued. Dickenson won (227) Senators to be chosen by state legislators. Opposition by William Paterson of New Jersey claiming “We have no power to go beyond the federal scheme” as outlined in the Articles of Confederation (Morris 228).

During the Conference, a rule of absolute secrecy was in effect which Jefferson confessed to Adams as being “abominable” in his opinion. Madison revealed, “no Constitution would ever had been adopted by the convention had the debates been public” (Morris 221-222).

The convention was not smooth sailing for Madison. He spoke almost every day during the Convention to defend practically every alteration or correction to his original plan and often found himself at odds with the more conservative elements in the Convention. Outright fierce opposition to the Constitution as a whole was in full-swing by members such as George Mason and Edmund Randolph of Virginia and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who declared their intention not to sign the document. Mason declared the Vice-Presidency as an infringement to the Senate and the Executive as downright dangerous (Ketchum 171). His notes were not published until after his death, notes which he confessed in life to their meticulous undertaking almost killing him (Morris 210). Madison wrights of his research project:

The curiosity I had felt during my researches into the History of the most distinguished Confederacies, particularly those of antiquity, and the deficiency I found in the means of satisfying it more especially in what related to the process, the principles, the reasons, & the anticipations, which prevailed in the formation of them, determined me to preserve as far as I could an exact account of what might pass in the Convention whilst executing its trust, with the magnitude of which I was duly impressed, as I was with the gratification promised to future curiosity by an authentic exhibition of the objects, the opinions & the reasoning’s from which the new System of Govt was to receive its peculiar structure & organization. Nor was I unaware of the value of such a contribution to the fund of of materials for the History of a Constitution on which would be staked the happiness of a people great even in its infancy, and possibly the cause of Liberty through the world. (Madison)

In spite of heated debates on Representation, Executive Power, Executive Salaries, electing Representatives and Senators, veto of state laws, the nature of federalism, judiciary, separation of powers, State equality in the Senate, majority rule and basic republican principles, lengths of terms for senators, citizenship, immigration, appointment of judges, the practice of slavery, qualifications for suffrage, the New Jersey Plan, and Hamilton’s National Plan, James Madison’s Virginia plan endured with some important changes (McClanahan 145).

In the end Mr. Madison was overruled for many of his arguments, however, he was successful in getting a simple majority vote for the regulation of interstate commerce through a successful argument. Slavery concessions were made. More often than not Madison was disappointed at the direction of the Convention and in many respects he was forced to openly support a document he had not envisioned in the beginning of the conference. History shows that Madison would convert and become a leader within the Anti-Federalists. To his continued credit, he did keep his word and work to install a Bill of Rights into the Constitution after it was ratified.

Additionally, by personally and repeatedly calling on prominent figures like George Washington to preside over the Convention , Madison demonstrated keen political insight while giving credit to all that were present for the contents of the end product. Thanks to his vision and tireless efforts, persistence through planning, coordination with like-minded individuals to publish numerous essays, conducting extensive research, coaching key delegates, and enduring the firestorm of harsh criticism and debate until the end, James Madison will be seen as a public benefactor for Americans throughout the ages as an essential Founding Father and the true “Architect of the Constitution”.


Works Cited

A More Perfect Union: The Creation of the US Constitution. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 28 Jan. 2014.

A More Perfect Union: America Becomes a Nation. Dir. Peter M. Johnson. Perf. Craig Wasson, Michael Mcquire, and Fredd Wayne. .Bridgestone Media Group,1989. DVD.

The Articles of Confederation: A Transcription. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.

Anti-Federalist Papers: and the Constitutional Convention Debates. Ed. Ralph Ketcham. Signet Classic, 2003. Print.

The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.

The Declaration of Independence for the United States of America: A Transcription. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.

Federalist Papers. Ed. Clinton Rossiter. Signet Classic, 2003. Print.

Gutzman, Kevin R C. James Madison and the Making of America. New York: St Martin’s Press, 2012. Print.

Madison, James. “Preface to Debates in the Convention” Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention: Teachingamericanhistory.org. Ashbrook Center, 2006. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.

McClanahan, Brion. Politically Incorrect Guide to The Founding Fathers. New York: Perseus Distribution, 2009. Print.

Morris, Richard B. Witnesses at the Creation: Hamilton, Madison, Jay and the Constitution. Ontario: Penguin, 1985. Print.

 

Dangerous Lessons: The “Melian Dialogue” for the Modern Age

Melian Dialogue, blogs.scientificamerican.com/

Melian Dialogue, blogs.scientificamerican.com/

When the Athenian General Thucydides recorded the History of the Peloponnesian War, did he know that his writings would stand the test of time through the millennia and that the dialogues contained within would remain as profound barometers for measuring the human condition?  One such discourse is known as the “Melian Dialogue”, between neutral people on the island of Melos and their would-be Athenian conquerors.  Many themes run throughout this very candid and insightful conversation between the key decision makers of the day that continue to have a profound impact in modern society including the justification for imperial hubris, the role of power in the defense of freedom, the sustainment of empires through force and fear, the doctrine of blowback, the willing consent of the governed, and speaking truth to power regardless of the potential ramifications.

The Melians were a colony from Sparta wmelian-debateho refused to join the Athenian empire like other islanders had done, instead preferring to remain neutral in the forthcoming conflict between Athens and Sparta. Before physical hostilities ensued, Athens sent representatives to negotiate, declaring that they wanted no trouble in bringing them into the empire for the good of both peoples. The Melians countered their claims with hope in the Spartans coming to their aid and faith that the gods would protect them, as they have survived for hundreds of years as a society. The Athenians began to extol the virtues of their invasion by claiming:

Our opinion of the gods and our knowledge of men lead us to conclude that it is a general and necessary law of nature to rule what we can. This is not a law we made ourselves, nor were we the first to act upon it when it was made. We found it already in existence, and we shall leave it to exist for ever for those who come after us. We are merely acting in accordance with it and we know that anyone else with the same power as ours would act in precisely the same way. (Thucydides 405)

The ideas discussed would be applied throughout the generations. One example takes place in the late eighteenth century while Adam Smith was in England drafting The Wealth of Nations and the founding fathers in America were contemplating independence. At a time when the ideas and language of liberty was flourishing a much more nefarious course for humankind was also being hatched elsewhere in Europe (Declaration).

SecretsIn 1983, Eustace Mullins published Secrets of the Federal Reserve in which he gives credit to William Guy Carr, writer of Pawns In The Game, who revealed a meeting of bankers in Mayer Amschel Bauer’s Goldsmith Shop in Frankfurt in 1773. Bauer, who would later be known to the world as “Rothschild” or Red Shield, invited twelve other wealthy and influential men to convince them that if they agreed to pool their resources they could then finance and control the World Revolutionary Movement and use it as their Manual of Action to win ultimate control of the wealth, natural resources, and manpower of the entire world. Reasoning that it was logical to conclude that the in laws of nature right lies in force and that political freedom is an idea, not a fact, he added that the use of any and all means to reach their final goal was justified on the grounds that the ruler who governed by the moral code was not a skilled politician because he left himself vulnerable and in an unstable position, asserting that right lies in force. He stated that the word Right is an abstract thought and proves nothing, finding a new right to attack by the Right of the Strong. They had the right to seize property by any means, and without hesitation, securing submission and sovereignty (Mullins 55).

Likewise, the Athenians were frustrated with the Melians and charged that they have proven nothing and through a false sense of honor will fall into disaster for the sake of an idea (Thucydides 205). With straightforward candor, the Athenians brashly justify imposing their will in the name of their own interests by saying, “So that by conquering you we shall increase not only our size but the security of the empire” (Thucydides 403).

ChessboardIn 1997, top globalist strategist Zbigniew Brzezinski, founder and former head of the NSA and Trilateral Commission, wrote a book about maintaining American primacy and global hegemony called the Grand Chessboard, in which he establishes its purpose.  Brzezinski states, “It is imperative that no Eurasian challenger emerges, capable of dominating Eurasia and thus also challenging America.”  Justification for territorial expansion remains a perpetual phenomenon.

Tragedy and HopeThe Athenians also understood very well the importance that power plays in the defense of freedom, responding to the Melians with, “So far as right and wrong are concerned they think that there is no difference between the two, that those who preserve their independence do so because they are strong, and that if we fail to attack them it is because we are afraid” (Thucydides 403).  They later add, “Hope is a comforter in Danger! If one already has solid advantages to fall back upon, one can indulge in hope.” Carrol Quigley, Professor of history at Georgetown University and mentor or Bill Clinton, wrote in 1966, “While politics consists of much more than weapons, the nature, organization, and control of weapons is the most significant of the numerous factor that determines what happens in political life (Clinton).” He goes on to say:

When weapons are of the “amateur” type of 1880, as they were in Greece in the fifth century B.C., they are widely possessed by citizens, power is similarly dispersed, and no minority can compel the majority to yield to its will. With such an “amateur weapons system” (if other conditions are not totally unfavorable), we are likely to find majority rule and a relatively democratic political system. (Quigley 1200)

When citing unfavorable conditions, Quigley was alluding to armed citizens as a fundamental problem to elitist command-and-controllers in their efforts to maintain control over their vassal populations.

To maintain an empire, the professor continues:

But, on the contrary, when a period can be dominated by complex and expensive weapons that only a few persons can afford to possess or can learn to use, we have a situation where the minority who control such” specialist” weapons can dominate the majority who lack them. In such a society, sooner or later, an authoritarian political system that reflects the inequality in control of weapons will be established. (Quigley 1202)

The Athenians were less mindful of mainland inhabitants who were free because their level of comfort made them slow to mobilize their forces, also claiming “We are more concerned about islanders like yourselves, who are still not subdued or subjects who have become embittered by the constraint that empire imposes upon them. These are the people most likely to act in a reckless manner and bring themselves and us, too, into the most obvious danger.” (Thucydides 403)  Mr. Rothschild expounds on this principle at infamous meeting by outlining in his master plan, by using all outlets of public information which they own and control to invent infamies that would bring others into disrepute, who if left unchecked would interfere with their overall plans (Mullins 55).

Niccolò Machiavelli, oil painting by Santi di Tito

Niccolò Machiavelli, oil painting by Santi di Tito

Fear based systems of domination and control are crucial element to maintaining empires. The Athenians do promise, perhaps disingenuously, that Melians can keep their property as long as they pay tribute to them and they continue to use the island as a strategic location for furthering of the empire (Thucydides 406). This strategy, commended by fifteenth century author Niccolo Machiavelli while crediting to the Romans for using it, was lauded, “Sending out colonies to for as strategic locations to maintain control of other nearby lands at little expense to the ruler…All others left unmolested, are in consequence easily quieted, and at the same time afraid to make a false move, less they share the fate of those who have been deprived of their possessions.” (Machiavelli 39) Superior firepower alone is not enough to dominate subjects. Fear based systems of control must also be implemented. Framing the debate by dictating the terms from the beginning with the prerequisite of elimination of arguments pertaining to justice that would otherwise be given, has also proven to be an effective measure of control that the Melians would have to overcome in this debate (Thucydides 401).

51LHOdCZZUL._SX326_BO1,204,203,200_Blowback is also known as the law of unintended consequences.  One of the more outrageous examples this doctrine is cited by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) concerning the US intrusive and internationalist foreign policy in Iran. An excerpt from the Stephen Kinzer book titled appears twice on the official CIA.gov website and reads, “It is not far-fetched to draw a line from Operation Ajax through the Shah’s repressive regime and the Islamic revolution to the fireballs that engulfed the World Trade Center in New York.” (Kinzer 202-204) The book continues to make the point that the world has paid a heavy price for Western activity in the Middle East (205). In the same spirit, the Melians address this issue to the Athenians by saying:

Is it not certain that you will make enemies of all the states who are at present neutral and naturally conclude that you will attack them too? Does this not mean you are strengthening your enemies you have already and forcing others to become your enemies against their intentions and inclinations?” (Thucydides 403)

One example of efforts to prevent blowback is James Buchanan’s decision not invade South Carolina during his presidency. In December of 1860, by the process of rescinding their original ratification of the Constitution of 1788 through the state legislature, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Fear of encouraging other states to follow suit and thus destroying the rest of the Union led to a special committee and Jefferson Davis was dispatched to negotiate terms for South Carolina’s return (McClanahan).

The consent of the governed has manifested as a vital component to the endurance of any system ranging from benevolent cooperation to authoritative control through the ages.

Indeed, the very language in Declaration of Independence for the United States inspired by John Locke and penned by Thomas Jefferson overtly proclaims, “To secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed” (Declaration).  “ In 2008, Brezezinski, acting as a top Obama Administration foreign policy advisor, frustrated over a mass political awakening because of influences such as the internet, lamented, “In earlier times it was literally easier to control a million people than to physically kill a million people, today it is infinitely easier to kill a million people than to control one million people” (Brezezinski speech).  Recognizing that the consent is a necessary and universal ingredient to any prolonged period of base domination, more sophisticated methods would have to be developed to usurp this unchanging requirement. Some elitists like Edward Bernays, the revered Father of Modern Advertising, Propaganda, and the nephew of Sigmund Freud, was intimately familiar with the effective use of applied psychology. Where consent does not exist, it was necessary to manufacture it.  In his 1928 book, Propaganda, he opens with:

The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. (Bernays 37)

Rothschild understood the role of consent when he spoke of his plans to “reconstruct all existing institutions, and to become the sovereign Lord of all those who left to us the rights to their powers by laying them down to us in their liberalism” (Mullins 55).

Etienne De La Boetie

Etienne De La Boetie in 1559

Etienne De La Boetie, who wrote a Discourse of Voluntary Servitude, counters Machiavelli’s techniques with the notion that a tyrant is automatically defeated if the country consent to their own enslavement (De La Boetie 44). Speaking truth to power in boldness as an open display of dissent was even integrated into Greek literature. In Sophocles Theban play, Antigone, Creon the king declares disobedience and anarchy as the worst of all evils and the greatest crime on the earth while Antigone challenges him, ready to face death unashamed  (Sophocles 84-85; 94).

The Melians were bold enough to speak truth to power toward the Athenians, who were equally as likely to be familiar with the concept of non-compliance described in Antigone, and withdraw their consent (84-85). The concluded the negotiations with “Our decision Athenians is just the same as it was at first. We are not prepared to give up in a short moment the liberty which our city has enjoyed from its foundation for 700 years” (Thucydides 407).  In recent times, the nations of the world have received open threats in the style and spirit of the Dialogue from the likes of globalist operative Henry Kissinger, commanding,  “We will have a New World Order whether we like it or not either by conquest or consent” (Endgame). This is just one example of a history that is replete with ultimatums similar to that in the Melian exchange.

As the history of human condition and traditions unfolds, for those who endeavor to understand continuous struggle between freedom oriented people and tyrannical forces that would enslave them, the “Melian Dialogue” and the magnitude of its implications and applications must not be overlooked. It serves a damning indictment of the imperial hubris inherent within our species while simultaneously accounting for the hope of a more satisfactory state of affairs through resistance to tyranny in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds.


Works Cited

Bernays, Edward. Propaganda. New York: Ig Publishing.2005. Print. A1928 book that openly

crows about the elites and their enslaved masses through psychological manipulation.

Brzezizinski, Zbigniew, The Grand Chessboard. New York. Basic Books. 1997. Print.

—. “Global Political Awakening”. Montreal. Council on Foreign Relations. 17 Nov. 2008. Speech. A top New World Order strategist lays out plans for American global hegemony.

Clinton, William J. Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention. New York .1992. Speech. Bill Clinton accept the nomination shares his appreciation for his Georgetown University Professor Carrol Quigley.

De le Boete, Ettiene. Politics of obedience: The discourse of voluntary servitude. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. 2008. Print. A 1559 essay on how to neutralize tyrants.

The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription. National Archives and Records

Administration. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. The document that founded America.

Endgame: Blueprint for Global Enslavement. Free Speech Systems Inc. 2007.DVD. A documentary that serves as damning indictment of the globalists in their own words.

Kinzer, Stephen. All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.2008. Print. An amazing historical book that reveals the folly of United States intervention in Iran referred to  by the CIA on their website.

Machiavelli, Nicollo. The Prince. Ed. Dover Thrift. New York. Dover Publications. 1992. Print. A book by a 15th Century thug, instructing his masters on how to control populations.

McClanahan, Brion. Cecession Part 1:The Election of 1860. 2013. MP4. An amazing video in which the professor brilliantly articulates the key events in a landmark election.

Mullins, Eustace. Secrets of the Federal Reserve. Carson City. Bridger House.1983. Print. The only book to ever be banned and burned in post Nazi WWII Germany.

Quigley, Carroll, “The Unfolding of Time.” Tragedy & Hope. San Pedro:GSG & Associates.1998. Print. The Rosetta Stone book for decoding what the elite criminals have been doing to the world for decades.

Sophocles. “Antigone”. The Tree Thebian Plays. Penguin: New York. 1984. Print.  A book with a series of plays, dealing mostly with the struggle of the species, man vs. the state.

Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War. Ed. Betty Radice, London. Penguin. 1972. Print.

An epic book with an amazing account of the first 2/3 of the Peloponnesian Wars.

United States Central Intelligence Agency. All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. Web. 24 Jan. 2014. An In-your-face web account of the consequences of  Operation Ajax and a rare admission of being responsible for 9/11.

Citizen Hacktivism vs Corporate Propaganda

HacktivismThe attempt by the United States to overthrow the Assad regime in Syria has recently manifested itself as an alliance between Google, the State Department, and the Qatar-based news agency known as Al Jazeera. Adding to the ongoing scandal surrounding the Hillary Clinton emails, the deliberate use of media to alter the citizenship of people in other countries for political reasons has come into the limelight (Bolton, 2016). This email was originally published on Jan. 7, 2016 by WikiLeaks, an online community of citizen activists who counter corporate and political establishments worldwide.

Jared Cohen, a former State Department official and a founding head of Google Ideas, sent a message in 2012 to the Deputy Secretary Burns. Cohen wrote about creating an app to track the defections in Syria in an effort to encourage more to defect. Partnering with Al Jazeera to give them primary ownership of the app, Cohen requested that the State Department keep it quiet. In the chain of messages, then Secretary of State Clinton replies to her Deputy Chief of Staff Sullivan with, “FYI – this is a pretty cool idea” (WikiLeaks, 2016).

Believing that this would have a powerful psychological impact as stated in the original letter, the plan went forward. Google created the app and gave it to Al Jazeera and they placed the interactive map on their website. Al Jazeera won the Best Technical Innovation Award at the Online Media Awards in London and even boasted about the award with four commendations on its website, the very tool that Google created (Chichakyan, 2016).

This underscores mainstream media willingness to cooperate with governments in the advancement of political agendas, thus blurring the lines between the organizations, while posing as independents in a plan to affect citizenship abroad against their governments. It was citizens who used internet to illustrate this collaboration and demonstrate that the power of the new media in the struggles for 21st century hegemony can work in both directions (Pieterse, 2012).

To Qatari citizens, Al Jazeera, which is chiefly on television and focuses primarily on international news, is a source of national pride. This has not stopped the trend that is shifting toward the internet as a primary source of news, especially in the ex-patriot resident population (Meeds, 2015).

Accompanying the growth of the internet as a news source is a substantial rise of internet activism such as blogging, trolling, and even a style of hacking called hacktivism as in the case for WikiLeaks (Cammaerts, 2013). Sometimes WikiLeaks are at odds with major news agencies and sometimes they work along-side (Roberts, 2011). In the past, WikiLeaks and Al Jazeera performed in a role together in de-legitimizing the Egyptian government in 2011 during what is dubbed Arab Spring. It is also important not to forget the significant role of social media by bringing together many anti-Mubarak forces who opposed the Egyptian president, coalescing them around several issues in their anti-regime platforms through Facebook and Twitter (Mabon, 2013). Also noteworthy in the struggle for dominance of the message on the web is the response of young people to the question of whether they approved of politicians also using social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Most were surprisingly in favor of it (Loader, 2016).

Hacktivists are usually united for a political cause that revolves around the free flow of information. According to the Hacktivismo Declaration, published on July 4, 2001 “State-sponsored censorship of the Internet is a serious form of organized and systematic violence against citizens.” (McCormick, 2013).  The phenomenon of WikiLeaks is characterized by a variety of coordinated and talented group of people with weak and strong ties. They have a unique set of opportunities and constraints, with strategies of contention carried out by their members and sympathizers (Cammaerts, 2013).

WikiLeaks history against the US State Department, the leaks by Edward Snowden from the National Security Agency (NSA), the conviction of Bradley Manning, and the greater number of prosecutions by the Obama administration have caused a reconsideration of the significance of the case of the Pentagon Papers (Altschuler, 2015).

In considering the long term impact of citizen activism, the action is in the reaction. Large organizations and governing bodies usually do not respond to embarrassment with more openness. According to John McCarthy of the Australian Institute of International Affairs, “WikiLeaks’ long-term importance will not lie in the details it has revealed. These will prove ephemeral. It lies rather in the reactions to WikiLeaks in western democracies and what this shows about the difference between community thinking and official practice.” Citizen activism through releasing massive amounts of data in trying to bring bureaucratic systems in line with modern public attitudes faces a difficult challenge: Meaningful change without an overall shift of attitude within the organizations will be unrealistic (McCarthy, 2011).

Another case made against the effectiveness of WikiLeaks as a force for significant change or a threat to government secrecy is mathematical in nature. Massive leaks of news are not significant proportionate to the exponential growth in data used by governments in the information age. For example: Only six percent of the 250,000 US State Department leaks were considered classified Secret, and the State Department claims that it has moved 2.5 million documents, ten times that amount, by other means than the network that was hacked (Roberts, 2011).

Furthermore, the economic factors have come into play. PayPal, Amazon.com, Master Card, and Visa, have with withdrawn their support for WikiLeaks. No political pressure, which did exist, was required. They have cited violations of their online user agreements as reasons for the disassociation and cessation of services; however, the legal and financial risks outweighed the benefits to them as WikiLeaks was never a source of revenue for them. The benefits of cooperation were not sufficient for the risks (Roberts, 2011).

Another challenge to hacktivists comes from the moral question in the use of Distributed denial of service (DDOS), which shuts down an opponent’s web site, is a popular revenge tool in the arsenal of hackers on all sides of conflicts (Hampson, 2012). DDOS is a controversial contradiction within the hacktivism community because of the moral dilemma of preventing others from posting information is a violation of the very principles of the free flow of information they claim to stand for (Roberts, 2011).

Citizens who play an essential role in the new media as both consumers and online producers of information motivated to bring global changes through release of massive levels of guarded information may be marginally efficacious at best in affecting public policy, yet there is hope. Even Slavoj Zizek, a Marxist philosopher and professor at the European Graduate School in Slovenia has stated, “We can no longer pretend we don’t know what everyone knows we know” (Pieterse, 2012). In this way, hacktivists have already forced a change in corporate, mainstream traditional media, and government official narratives which are then subsequently re-consumed in the news cycle.

The dance between citizens and media as cooperative and opposing forces continues to be a spectacle of epic proportions; like two supermassive black holes spiraling toward each other at increasing speeds, with their colossal gravitational influences counter-balancing the other while spinning wildly toward a collision course, they release tremendous shock waves of super-heated gas and energy that ripples through the host galaxy. What happens when an unstoppable force comes into contact with an immovable object?  What will be the long term effects of these ripples on society at large?


Works Cited

Altschuler, B. E. (2015). Is the Pentagon Papers Case Relevant in the Age of WikiLeaks?. Political Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), 130(3), 401-423

Bolton, D. (2016, March 22). The Independent | News | UK and Worldwide News | Newspaper. Google planned to help Syrian rebels bring down Assad regime, leaked Hillary Clinton emails claim | News | Lifestyle | The Independent. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/google-syria-rebels-defection-hillary-clinton-emails-wikileaks-a6946121.html

Cammaerts, B. (2013). Networked Resistance: The Case of WikiLeaks. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(4), 420-436. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12024

Chichakyan, G. (2016, March 26). WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks – Hillary Clinton Email Archive. Retrieved March 27, 2016, from http://wikileaks.org/clinton-emails/emailid/12166#efmAMoAbj

Hampson, N. N. (2012). HACKTIVISM: A NEW BREED OF PROTEST IN A NETWORKED WORLD. Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, 35(2), 511-542.

Loader, B. D ; Vromen, A. ; Xenos, M. A. (2016). Performing for the young networked citizen? Celebrity politics, social networking and the political engagement of young people. 38(3), pp.400-419

Mabon, S. (2013). Aiding Revolution? Wikileaks, communication and the ‘Arab Spring’ in Egypt. Third World Quarterly, 34(10), 1843-1857.

McCarthy, J. (2011). WikiLeaks [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]. Ethos, 19(2), 13-17.

McCormick, T. (2013). ANTHROPOLOGY OF AN IDEA HACKTIVISM. Foreign Policy, (200), 24-25. Retrieved from http://db08.linccweb.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1365771233?accountid=45782

Meeds, R. (2015). Changing roles of traditional and online media as trusted news sources in Qatar and their relationships with perceived important issues and interest in politics. Journal of Middle East Media Vol 11, Fall 2015

Pieterse, J. N. (2012). Leaking Superpower: WikiLeaks and the contradictions of democracy. Third World Quarterly, 33(10), 1909-1924.

Roberts, A. (2011). The WikiLeaks Illusion. Wilson Quarterly, 35(3), 16-21.

(2013, June 13). Al Jazeera: Live News | Bold Perspectives | Exclusive Films. Al Jazeera website wins award – Al Jazeera English. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.aljazeera.com/pressoffice/2013/06/clone.of.201332105347373148.html

(2016, January 7). WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks – Hillary Clinton Email Archive. Retrieved March 27, 2016, from http://wikileaks.org/clinton-emails/emailid/12166#efmAMoAbj

American Thunderbolt: Benjamin Franklin the Inventor

Benjamin Franklin, Michael J. Deas, 2003

Benjamin Franklin, Michael J. Deas, 2003

Many of the Founding Fathers were Beasts!

They were mighty in their chosen fields of endeavor. Ship fleet owners like John Hancock, land surveyors like George Washington, publishers like Paul Revere, successful lawyers like John Adams, and prominent physicians like Benjamin Rush were among the crowd of brilliant men. Most were also farmers. Before John Quincy Adams followed his father’s footsteps in law, he was a US Ambassador to Russia at twelve years old. Thomas Jefferson spoke seven languages, was an architect and engineer who designed Monticello, and even invented the swivel chair in his spare time. Public service was a collateral duty for these men. They would have scoffed at current day professional politicians with no accomplishments outside of government who never had a “real job” in their lives.

Benjamin Franklin also made his mark on history in amazing ways. In addition to his historic role as the only signatory of the four Key Documents, the Declaration of Independence, The Treaty of Alliance with France, The Treaty of Paris which made peace between England and the States, and the US Constitution,  Franklin was also an accomplished scientist and prolific inventor.  Indeed, much of his inventions were truly as paradigm-shifting revolutionary and ahead of their time as the fledgling nation he helped to establish. These inventions benefited the community as a whole, demonstrated their personal utility, and even served as a source of entertainment as to permit expressions of artistic values.

Many of Mr. Franklin’s innovative creations are familiar to Americans to this day regardless of whether or not they are attributed to him.  He retains the title, among many, as Father of the Public Library which acted as a lending library. Not only did he found the Library Company as an outgrowth of his Junto book club, he even designed the emblem (Hall 56-58). He utilized his skills and ownership in his printing business to publicly endorse the development of a Fire Department, later known as Benjamin Franklin’s Bucket Brigade (59), and endorsed paving of the streets in Philadelphia (Gaustad 36) while improving the design of street lanterns to allow more airflow and require less frequent cleaning (Hall 59).   By designing Twenty Schilling Notes and incorporating the use of actual leaves in the prints, he helped to battle counterfeiting (57).

Exercising his talents as a civic pioneer even further, in 1749, he was founder and president of the University of Pennsylvania , and co-founder of the Philadelphia Hospital with physician Thomas Bond (60).  He continued to serve with his extraordinary vision for new ideas, even suggested the concept of Daylight Savings Time to the European and American communities as an economic enhancer. His argument for Daylight savings time was that candle light was cheaper than sunlight. Although this vision was not realized until the twentieth century, Ben Franklin has received the credit for the idea (Gaustad 46-47). Infused with his own flavor of wit and wisdom, he published the popular “Poor Richard’s Almanac.”  Preferring the turkey as over the bald eagle is considered to be his only bad idea. Benjamin Franklin believed that the eagle was a bird with bad moral character. In his dauntless fortitude during the execution of his civic duties, his last public act was to sign an appeal to congress for the abolition of slavery (Davis).

By connecting Leyden jars that acted as electrical capacitors to harness their total collective power, Franklin had created the First Battery. He addressed the issue of insufficient retention of heat from the conventional in-house fireplaces of the day by manufacturing a wood burning stove made of iron that still bears his name (58). After his world famous experiment to prove that lightning was made of electricity in 1752 (Davis), he created the Lightning Rod. Some rods still exist to this day as museum artifacts. One rod on display is visibly bent at a right angle by a bolt of lightning, clearly demonstrating the usefulness of the creation. As the first Postmaster General of the United States, the issue of making postal routes more efficient was handled with a pioneering method. Benjamin Franklin built an Odometer and connected it to a carriage to measure distance by counting wheel revolutions (Hall 59).

One of the more familiar items produced from the mind of Ben Franklin are the Bifocals which were made by combining the lenses that were designed to clarify distant and nearby objects into a single set of eye-glasses (58). Bifocals were so ahead of their time, it was noted that President Andrew Jackson still used two sets of glasses on his head to read his inaugural address decades later. Other items attributed to Dr. Franklin are development of the Long Arm reaching device to assist him with retrieving books off the top shelf in his later years, a urinary catheter, and even swim fins (Fuller).

The Armonica was a musical instrument created from thirty seven glass bowls of various sizes and controlled with a foot pedal and spun through water.  This was the invention that gave Benjamin Franklin the greatest measure of personal satisfaction and enjoyment (Gaustad 45-46). Indeed, even Mozart and Beethoven, composed music specifically designed for it (Hall 58).  As he was recognized internationally with unprecedented levels of popularity at home and abroad, he is championed as the inventor of the American Celebrity (Davis).  John Adams, who joined Franklin on his mission to  France during the Revolutionary War, recalled, “There was scarcely a peasant or a citizen…a lady’s chambermaid or scullion in the kitchen…who did not consider him a friend to humankind.”

Considering the popularity and usefulness of Ben Franklin’s innovations, one might expect that he would rake-in substantial sums of money from the copyrights only to be surprised to learn that he refused to patent any of them, saying” As we benefit from the inventions of others, we should be glad to share our own,…and this we should do freely and generously” (Hall 58).   After his death, Frenchman stated, “He was able to retrain alike thunderbolts and tyrants ” (Mirabeau).  Benjamin Franklin has been credited with these things and much more. Twenty thousand admirers attended his funeral.  If he only created the bifocals and stove, that would have been noteworthy, however he has been credited as the man who helped to “invent” America (Davis).


Works Cited

Davis, Kenneth C. ”Benjamin Franklin.” USA WEEKEND 18-20 Jan ed. Mclean, Virginia.: Gannett New Services Inc.2002. n page. Print. A short USA Today sponsored magazine article with a simple and enjoyable pop-quiz about a beloved American founding father.

Fuller, John. “Top 10 Ben Franklin Inventions.” How Stuff Works.com. HowStuffWorks.Inc, Web. 24 Feb. 2014. A well laid out website loaded with simple and fun facts.

Gaustad, Edwin S. Lives and Legacies: Benjamin Franklin. London: Oxford UP, 2006. Print.

An easy to read and thorough book from a prestigious institution.

Hall, Alice J. “Forever Wise: Benjamin Franklin.” Exploring History: Innovators. National Geographic Society. 28 Jan. 2013. 52-65.Print.  A beautifully illustrated magazine article from a well-respected source.

Mirabeau, Comte de. “Franklin is Dead” Paris. 11 June 1790.Speech.  A French statesman’s announcement of Benjamin Franklin’s death to the French National Assembly.

Criminal and Civil Law

Depending upon its context, the word LAW can mean many things to various people ranging from absolutes like gravity that apply to all universally and consistently through paper legislation that is selectively enforced. In addition to physics and ideas back by force of arms are laws that deal with the rights and expectations in human affairs such as Natural Law and Common Law.

Criminal Law and Civil Law deal with the concept of justice. That is, an effort to right a wrong after the event has taken place.

Criminal laws deal with conduct that has been deemed as prohibited and punished by the state. The state is defined as government ranging from local, municipal, county, state, national, or federal. Criminal trials are usually titled as the “State vs Individual.”  The 6th Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees that in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy a speedy and public trial in the state and district which the crime shall have been committed in, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, to be informed of the nature of the accusation, to be confronted by witnesses, for a compulsory process for gathering witnesses on their behalf, and to seek the advice of counsel for defense.

The burden of proof that the crime was committed by the accused is supposed to rest with the state in the spirit of innocent until proven guilty. However, since no one is considered faultless in the human condition, a jury (or judge if the right is waived) will pronounce “Guilty” or “Not Guilty” of the specific charges.

Since counsel is a right, an attorney must be provided by the court if one is not affordable to the accused. Additionally, the 5th Amendment provides protection against self-incrimination and no person shall have their life, liberty, or property taken without due process. No warrants shall issue without probable cause in the 4th Amendment and no person shall be a slave in the US except as punishment for a crime according to the 13th Amendment. By this standard, with the world’s largest incarcerated population of 2.4 million people. The US has the largest slave population in the world today.

Crimes are usually have victims and are divided into two categories, Felonies and Misdemeanors.

Misdemeanors such as traffic violations, DUI’s with no casualties, or minor drug possessions are considered as less serious crimes with punishment ranging from fines and community service to jail. Prison sentences in misdemeanors range from one day of confinement to  a maximum of 11 Months-30 Days in Florida. Felonies are the more serious crimes against persons directly such as rape, murder, or assault. They are punished more severely with 1 year or more in prison.

Civil cases are not state sponsored prosecutions. They involve two parties known as the Plaintiff and the Defendant (or Respondent). The parties can be individuals, corporations, or organizations. The court’s role in these disputes is to arbitrate and assign liability and to award damages, usually in the form of monetary reparations. The danger of life and limb or incarceration is not involved in civil cases. These disputes can be anything from unpaid rent to demanded refunds for unsatisfactory performance or services not rendered. These trials can range from small claims court to multi-million dollar lawsuits. The 7th Amendment guarantees a right to trial by jury for any dispute in excess of twenty dollars. This was equivalent to an ounce of gold at the time of ratification (1788), which is now worth $1,200 an ounce in 2015.

During the pre-trial phase in criminal cases, the accused is informed of their rights at the time of the arrest. This is a result of the 1966 case known as Miranda vs Arizona in which the suspect was not informed of his rights. This is called “Mirandizing” the suspect which is something of an irony since Miranda was not Mirandized. I will never personally call them “Miranda Rights” as they are commonly referred-to because if they were given through the courts, all it takes is a court case to overturn them and make them go away, however; if they are 5th and 6th Amendment rights, then they are irrevocable due to the integral nature of the Bill of Rights as the deal under which the nation states confederated. To repeal them would be a deal breaker and dissolve the union between the states which is why they are never attacked directly, but usurped by subversive legislation. The accused usual enters a plea (sometimes they don’t) of guilty, not guilty, or nolo contendere (no contest). Lawyers also take depositions, attorneys share information on both sides and the charges are read in an arraignment and pre-trial hearings are conducted.

In civil cases, a lawsuit filed against individuals, politicians, corporations, firms, or other groups. The respondent or defendant can challenge the “tort” with a demurrer to prevent criminal indictment or ask for a summary judgement in an attempt to have the case dismissed before trial. Both sides may agree to an out of court settlement. If it proceeds to trial, witness depositions are taken, interrogatories are answered, and other parties may file an amicus curiae to join in.

During the trial phase for criminal charges, a jury is selected or a continuance is given if the judge agrees for more time to be given to the accused. Jurors can be denied for any reason in practice, however; there are official reasons that are unacceptable for rejection, like race or gender. This is called peremptory challenge. Experts and witnesses are sworn-in, testify, and cross-examined. The standard for conviction is “Beyond a Reasonable Doubt” and the jury must be unanimous. For civil cases, only 3/4 or 5/6 vote by jurors is required because the stakes are lower and the standard for the decision is “a preponderance of evidence.”

Post-Trial phase for criminal trials can involve appeals to have the conviction remanded or overturned if the errors in the trial were proven to be significant or new exculpatory evidence is produced that was not available at the time of the original trial. Criminal trials can sometimes lead to civil trials. An example of this would be the O.J Simpson Trial for the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman in 1994. After being exonerated of the murder charges in the criminal case with a not guilty verdict, the families sued Simpson successfully in a 1997 a civil case for wrongful death. Compensatory damages in the form of monetary payments may be rewarded to the plaintiff in civil cases. Sometimes punitive damages may be applied to the defendant by the court. If the defendant feels that the punishment was excessive or the determination of the court was in error, they may also appeal.

Case Study: Don’t Drone Me Bro!

Dallas Police Robot

Dallas Police Robot

There is a new development that may not only further exacerbate the police public relations, it can bring us closer to “fundamentally transforming America” as Obama announced in his inaugural speech.  In the wake of the horrific massacre of multiple police officers in Dallas, TX, comes news that a robot was used to deliver a bomb that killed the suspect. In order to understand the possible future social and political ramifications of this unprecedented use of a non-areal drone to kill an American on American soil, it is necessary to review the development of drones and drone policy from multiple points of view and examine how they are already changing the political landscape on a global scale.

Charles Krauthhammer, foxnews.com

Charles Krauthhammer, foxnews.com

In what was recognized to be a public relations crisis for aerospace manufacturers, coupled with a public affairs crisis for the US federal government, “I would predict the first guy who uses a second amendment weapon to bring a drone down who is hovering over his house will become a folk hero,” claims Charles Krauthammer, a Fox News analyst who openly supports the use of drones overseas but not domestically.  He enjoys the American empire, however, does not want to live under it. Calling for an outright ban on domestic use, Krauthammer declared, “Drones are instruments of war. The founders had a great aversion toward using instruments of war, the use of the military, inside the United States.”

John Oliver, HBO.com

John Oliver, HBO.com

John Oliver, host of Last Week Tonight on HBO deflected the severity of domestic use by shifting gears, referring to drones as “the third-most annoying thing in the sky after mosquitoes and plastic bags caught in the breeze.” He added, “Overseas, drones are a slightly more serious matter.” “During the Obama administration, we launched eight times the drone the number of drone strikes as his predecessor.”

According to the Foreign Policy Research Institute, there are approximately 7,500 US drones in operation and 65% of Americans support drone strikes overseas. Number of drones foreign and domestic. The Bureau of Investigative Journalism has estimated that 900 noncombatants including 200 children have been killed since the inception of the program. Accurate data is not able to be assessed as to the identity of the targets in the aftermath because of the complete devastation to the area.

Conservatives concerned about privacy and liberals aghast about the loss of life seemed united in their resistance to the use of unmanned remotely controlled aerial vehicles known as drones, particularly the systems of reconnaissance and weaponized vehicles like Predator and Global Hawk.

Toscano Linkedin

Michael Toscano, Linkedin.com

In response to the outrage concerning drone use the Washington based Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) President Michael Toscano went scrambling into damage control mode with the bold statement, “People who don’t know what they’re talking about say these are spy planes or killer drones. They’re not.” He referred to them as “remotely piloted vehicles.” He continued by adding 35,000 car death statistics per year for death toll comparison and lauding the virtues of the firefighting and search and rescue capabilities. Comparing them to mother and apple pie may not have had its intended soothing all-Americana outcome. They were marginally efficacious at best.

Leon Panetta, Defense.gov

Leon Panetta, Defense.gov

In reference to fighting Al Qaeda in 2009, CIA director Leon Panetta called drones, ‘The only game in town.” Yet, It is very difficult to run a successful public relations campaign for a program that exists on record but is not recognized by official sources. In February of 2013, in an interview with MSNBC’s Chris Hayes, former White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs, said that he was told “You’re not even to acknowledge the drone program. You’re not even to discuss that it exists.”

 

In 2012 after the New York Times published an article about the Disposition Matrix, secret drone strike kill list that members of the Obama administration leaked, We Are Change reporter Luke Rudkowski approached Democratic National Chairperson Debbie Wassermann-Shultz. When he asked the Florida Congresswoman whether she trusted Mitt Romney to handle Obama’s kill list, she said, “I have no idea what that what you’re talking about.” I’m happy to answer serious questions.”  Several organizations ranging from liberal The Young Turks to the reporters at London based Guardian   have slammed her for being ignorant about the existence of the list. During their second encounter in 2015, the Congresswoman acknowledged the list and talked about Obama bringing balance; however, she did not answer the questions to the satisfaction of the reporter as to the constitutionality of the list or the extrajudicial killing of US citizen Anwar al-Awlaki and his sixteen year old son by drone strike. Jeb Bush also claimed to be unaware of the Disposition Matrix.

11awlaki-web-master768

Anwar al Awlaki, NYTimes.com

Article I, Section 9, Clause 3 of the US Constitution explicitly prohibits a Bill of Attainder: That is any list that arbitrarily finds someone guilty without due process of law: no judge, no jury, no trial, no evidence, no charges, no lawyer, and no witnesses. The right to trial by jury is the only right that appears three times in the Bill of Rights.

Laurie Calhoun is the author of We Kill Because We Can: From Soldiering to Assassination in the Drone Age. In an interview with on the Tom Woods Show podcast, she noted how drones, originally covert in 2002, have grown to become standard operating procedure. He also noted that for ten years, with few notable exceptions like Rand Paul, there was no public debate in Congress between 2002 and 2012. Obama said on Google Chat “look what I’m doing to keep you safe.”

Tom Woods

Tom Woods, Tomcods.com

“The reality is that all of the people killed are suspects. This is unprecedented in history and in criminal justice.” She added that suspects are considered “shady” because the evidence is provided by bribed locals, a similar process that led to of the detainees who were incarcerated at Camp X-ray in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for years without due process, 86 percent of which were innocent. “The very same tactics are used for intelligence gathering in drone strikes.”

The counter argument as to how do we deal with shadowy stateless enemies that intend to do us harm. The choice between Tomahawk cruise missiles and full scale invasion or drones in order to prevent even more objectionable policies “false dichotomy,” Calhoun told Dr. Thomas E. Woods Jr. of the Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh points during an interview with selected media, including Reuters, in Sanaa in this May 25, 2011 file photo. Saleh said on November 14, 2011 he was ready to step down within 90 days of reaching a deal on a formal process for implementing a Gulf initiative aimed at ending the nine-month-old crisis in his country. To match interview YEMEN-SALEH/ REUTERS/Khaled Abdullah (YEMEN - Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST)

Yemen’s President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Reuters

According to Calhoun, public relations concerning drones has already led to civil war and humanitarian disaster. In Yemen during November 2002, President Saleh authorized drone strikes by the United States. The fear of drones was so pervasive that Zubair Rehman a thirteen year old drone strike survivor told the US Congress in 2013, “I no longer love blue skies.” During gray skies he continued, “The mental tension and fear eases.”  This was considered to be a way to eliminate his political enemies by labeling them as terrorists and forwarding the information to the United States. This eventually resulted in the Houthi Coup and a civil war. Saudi Arabia does not acknowledge the legitimacy of the new government and is using the crisis to continuously slam Yemeni militants with billions of dollars of US supplied heavy weapons.

Laurie Calhoun

Calhoun continued, “There are allot of groups of angry people who posed no existential threat to the United States, even if they hate us, because they do not have the means to come over here, have all been conflated into a single group of evil terrorists, [Saleh was] using his collaboration with the United States to eliminate political enemies.”

“They are assumed to be combatants unless otherwise proven” according to Calhoun, some are “defending their homeland from invasion” and, “Throwing them all into one barrel of evil terrorists (posthumously) akin to Osama bin Laden and I reject that premise.” In Calhoun’s book, Norm Chomsky states, “The drone assassination campaign is the most extraordinary global terror campaign yet conceived and executed.

2013_ja_coverThe July / August 2013 issue of Foreign Affairs Magazine, published by the Council on Foreign Relations, is titled “Death from Above: Are Drones Worth It?” It features two opposing papers by professors Daniel Byman and Audrey Kurth Cronin.

In “Why Drones Work.” Professor of Security Studies at Georgetown University Byman explains, nobody does it better, foreign leaders approve, controlling the spread of the technology is impossible, and they limit Washington’s military commitment abroad which keeps Americans safe. “A 2012 poll found that 74% of Pakistanis view the US as the enemy; but, they do not realize drones take out those who wreak havoc in their country,” he argues that the ratio of civilian to militant strikes are lower compared to other kinds of strikes.

Professor Byman, Georgetown.edu

Professor Byman, Georgetown.edu

In “Why Drones Fail” Cronin, a Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, asserts that Al Qaeda is resilient, drone strikes significantly enhance their propaganda, and that drones are a form of remote control repression and serve primarily to keep them it in check rather than dealing directly or eliminating threats. She adds that drones are transforming relatively harmless local conflicts into international fights and draw in new terrorist recruits. Also, they make “lifesaving” interrogations impossible and a “pass the remote attitude” that uses technology and fear to solve sophisticated conflicts.

 

audrey gmu edu

Audrey Cronin, GMU.edu

The essay also displayed a picture of three Pakistani tribesman holding pieces of a missile with the caption “Don’t drone me, bro!”

According declassified to a Pentagon Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Task Force report from February 2013, overcoming the “tyranny of distance” from the home base to the target is also favorable argument in support of drone use.

 

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Good Kill, IFC Films (2014) IMDB

While drones have appeared seriously in only a few Hollywood movies like Syriana, with George Clooney, they are slated to be the main feature of controversy in upcoming movies. Good Kill with Ethan Hawke deals with the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) faced by drone remote operators who return home to their families and barbecues every night as though nothing has happened. American Ultra starring Jesse Eisenberg and Kristin Stewart makes a comedic approach to the casual use of drones.

The CIA Entertainment Industry Liaison can be found at CIA.gov. Their stated function is to assist anyone creating media pertaining to intelligence for public consumption and bring authenticity to convey how intelligence is “exciting, challenging, and essential.”  They appear to be working hard to fix the image of drones, or at least inject them into the narrative as a multifaceted and sophisticated part of the political debate, reflecting the realities of twenty first century warfare.

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Eye in the Sky, Raindog Films 2016, IMDB

As great example of this is the intense drama Eye in the Sky, starring Aaron Paul and Helen Mirren and coming out in 2016 will feature the philosophical implications of the drone use as center stage. The plot revolves around the moral decisions that must be made quickly when using Hellfire missiles to take out a structure that houses a radical group arming themselves with suicide vests while a young girl plays outside nearby. The focus is on the conflict that arises internally within the intelligence organizations when remote pilots only see the outside of the building and refuse to fire. “If they kill eighty people, we win the propaganda war; if we kill one child, they do” is a talking point.

John Oliver commented on drones during a broadcast of Last Week Tonight. He showed Pakistani cartoons featuring drones that converse with mosquitoes and drone strike green screen graphics packages for local news outlets.  “When children from other countries are telling us, we’ve made them fear the sky, it might be time to ask some hard questions.”

Gerald Celente from the Trends Journal Magazine commented in a 2014 interview on the Alex Jones Show, “How would Thomas Jefferson react if he saw a drone out the window of Monticello?” adding, “Oh, the King just wants to make sure you are safe.”

Farea al-Muslimi, a Yemeni youth activist and writer, testified to the Senate Judiciary Committee on Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights that “The drone strikes are the face of America to many Yemenis.”

In October of 2015, RT.com published a report in which whistle-blower Brandon Bryant, a former drone pilot, describes a staggering ninety percent of people killed were not the intended target, adding “They don’t care who gets killed as long as they hit the target.”

The framework for the justification of the use of deadly force, as per former Defense Department advisor and Georgetown University Law Professor Rosa Brooks who reported to Congress is: “We have an executive branch making a claim that it has the right to kill anyone, anywhere on Earth, at any time, for secret reasons, based on secret evidence, in a secret process, undertaken by unidentified officials.

President Obama at the WHCA Dinner, C-span.

President Obama at the WHCA Dinner, C-span.

“I have two words for you, Predator Drones” warned Mr. Obama to the Jonas Brothers boy band from a podium in reference to the protection of his daughters at a party speech. Amidst the ensuing laughter he added, “You will never see it coming.”

While Obama’s promise to Fundamentally Transform America was eye opening for some, Fundamentally altering our altering our forms of government was one of the 27 grievances against England listed in the Declaration of Independence. His bold statement was followed up with “For those who challenge the scope of our ambitions fail to realize that the ground has already shifted beneath them.” While the ambitions of government to grow always carries with it increased negations of liberty, he was right about one thing. Most people are unaware of the shifting.

What happens to a building when its foundation is ripped out from underneath it?

Thomas Jefferson said, “The state of war always serves as an excuse for domestic tyranny.”

While the police were correct to put an end to the shooting in Dallas, was the use of a robot to kill the shooting suspect in in Dallas the best or only option?  Time will tell as more information is released.

Rand Paul's drone filibuster, foxnews.com.

Rand Paul’s drone filibuster, foxnews.com.

The advent and strategic use of drones, whether areal abroad or rolling at home, is a shifting force that must be recognized. Meaningful discussions on Capital Hill like the one between Senator Rand Paul and  Attorney General Eric Holder with his response and the Filibuster of John Brennan’s appointment as CIA Director, because of his support for domestic use of drones, are few and far between.  A robust debate among policymakers and candidates for office concerning the use of drones and the militarization of the police is long overdue. It’s time to be more sophisticated in the pursuit of liberty with a deeper understanding of the rule of law and the impact of foreign and domestic
policies and bring that full spectrum analysis to the public discourse. As the preamble to the Bill of Rights describes, further declaratory and restrictive clauses on government (especially one lacking transparency) would go a long way to restore public trust and confidence in government which is beneficial for all.

Eric Holder 2

 

AG Holder’s first drone letter to Sen. Paul

 

AG Holder’s second drone letter to Sen. Paul

 

 

IN August of 2016, the White House released it’s drone guidelines to the public. Fox News has published it without any links to a source document and subsequently pulled the story off of their website, forcing local Fox News affiliates to use CNN as the source of the story. Unfortunately, the CNN article does not reference the source document for review either.

Of particular concern is not only the extrajudicial nature and the ability of the president to conduct strikes from the comfort of his office; it is also a concern as to what these guidelines do or do not reveal about how targets are chosen and who else has the weapons release authority to launch a drone strike.

Here is the newly released Source Document that appears to be three years old on the date of release. 2013.05.23_fact_sheet_on_ppg (1) . Contrary to Obama’s statement suggesting the guidelines are newly revised.

link: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/2013.05.23_fact_sheet_on_ppg.pdf

As the guidelines were released, RT published Game of Drones which documents how these extrajudicial killings are taking place in Pakistan and how one country engaged in continuously bombing an ally country is unprecedented in the history of the world.

 

References

Byman, D. (2013, July 1). Why Drones Work: The Case for Washington’s Weapon of

Choice. Foreign Affairs, 92(4), 32-43.

Calhoun, L. (2015). We Kill Because We Can: From Soldiering to Assassination in the

Drone Age. London: Zed Books.

Cronin, A. (2013, July 1). Why Drones Fail: When Tactics Drive Strategy. Foreign

Affairs, 92(4), 44-54.

Seitel, F. (2014). The Practice of Public Relations (Vol. 12). Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson.

Woods, T. (2015, November 12). Episode 538. The Bipartisan Mainstreaming of

Drone Warfare. The Tom Woods Show. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from

http://tomwoods.com/podcast/ep-538-the-bipartisan-mainstreaming-of-drone-warfare

(2015, October 15). The Drone Papers. ISR Support to Small Footprint Operations

Somalia / Yemen. Retrieved October 15, 2015, from

https://theintercept.com/document/2015/10/15/small-footprint-operations-2-13/